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pre/nat/al: In 2009, the International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA) published a report entitled State Sponsored Homophobia 2009,[36] which is based on research carried out by Daniel Ottosson at Södertörn University College, Stockholm, Sweden. Universal definition, of, relating to, or characteristic of all or the whole: universal experience. "[95] Baker hypothesized "maybe it's a matter of power and looking down on all you think are at the bottom. Rings indicate local or case-by-case application. So many of us refuse to leave our comfort zones because we are afraid ofdoing something wrong, something that could damage our lives forever. [13][66][7] The degree to which someone is affected by these ideas depends on how much and which ideas they have consciously and subconsciously internalized. Symptoms of emetophobia can be mental, emotional, and physical. Hamartophobia- Fear of sinning. Professor David A. F. Haaga says that contemporary usage includes "a wide range of negative emotions, attitudes and behaviours toward homosexual people," which are characteristics that are not consistent with accepted definitions of phobias, that of "an intense, illogical, or abnormal fear of a specified thing." 2011. [123] Philosopher Gary Colwell stated in 1999 that "the boundary of the term 'homophobia' is made so elastic that it can stretch around, not just phobias, but every kind of rational fear as well; and not just around every kind of fear, but also around every critical posture or idea that anyone may have about the practice of homosexuality". [citation needed] In the United States, a February 2012 Pew Research Center poll shows that Catholics support gay marriage by a margin of 52% to 37%. Critics of the scales note that they presume a discomfort with non-heterosexuality which in itself enforces heternormativity. FBI National Press Office. hydrophobic), in biology to describe organisms that dislike certain conditions (e.g. an/esthesia: ... fear of many things: Term. https://quizlet.com/391207396/medical-terminology-questions-flash-cards (November 1974). A fear of dying plays a role in many anxiety disorders, such as panic disorders. [108], One form of organized resistance to homophobia is the International Day Against Homophobia (or IDAHO),[109] first celebrated May 17, 2005 in related activities in more than 40 countries. Atelophobia- Fear of imperfection. This means that by the age of 18, you’ve been very effectively trained to fear failure. To someone in chronic fear, the world looks scary and their memories confirm that. Rictor Norton; Louie Crew (ed.) [130] The scientific use of heterophobia in sexology is restricted to few researchers, notably those who question Alfred Kinsey's sex research. [1][3][9] According to 2010 Hate Crimes Statistics released by the FBI National Press Office, 19.3 percent of hate crimes across the United States "were motivated by a sexual orientation bias. Ataxophobia– Fear of disorder or untidiness. [98], As soon as 2005, an editorial from the New York Times related the politics of don't ask, don't tell in the US Army with the lack of translators from Arabic, and with the delay in the translation of Arabic documents, calculated to be about 120,000 hours at the time. In Religion Dispatches magazine, Candace Chellew-Hodge argues that the six or so verses that are often cited to condemn LGBT people are referring instead to "abusive sex". The first permanent crossings have been put on roads in Lambeth. Just like we would respect authority, respect an authoritative person in a field of study. Further, APA calls on these organizations and individuals to do all that is possible to decrease the stigma related to homosexuality wherever and whenever it may occur. [74] They noted that "these people are at war with themselves and are turning this internal conflict outward. ab/duction: Definition. The word Didaskaleinophobia is derived from Greek Didasko meaning to teach and phobos meaning aversion or fear. [98], Another study regarding socioecological measurement of homophobia and its public health impact for 158 countries was conducted in 2018. movement of a limb away from the body: Term. 2012[73] arrived at similar results when researchers found that students who came from "the most rigid anti-gay homes" were most likely to reveal repressed homosexual attraction. Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT). Fear is not as automatic as you think. Anti-gay bias contributed significantly to the spread of the AIDS epidemic. Economical cost in Middle East and North Africa was 16.92 billion dollars. In common usage, they also … Theorists including Calvin Thomas and Judith Butler have suggested that homophobia can be rooted in an individual's fear of being identified as gay. [125][126] The AP's decision was criticized in some media outlets, especially those in the LGBT area,[127] who argued that homophobia did not necessarily have to be interpreted in a strict clinical sense.[128][129]. Queer theology seeks to provide a counterpoint to religious homophobia. In 1307, accusations of sodomy and homosexuality were major charges leveled during the Trial of the Knights Templar. Meaning of many things, fear of medical term. This disparity is shown in the graph on the right, which is from a book published in 2008 by Joseph Fried. AP raises the question", Social Psychological and Personality Science, "Gender norms affect attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women globally", European Parliament resolution on homophobia in Europe, Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures, Timeline of sexual orientation and medicine, SPLC-designated list of anti-LGBT U.S. hate groups, Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany, Significant acts of violence against LGBT people, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Homophobia&oldid=1001683582, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from October 2020, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from September 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The fear terms are suffixed by phobia, which is the Greek term for 'fear'. Spartacus International Gay Guide, page 1217. Internalized homophobia can cause discomfort with and disapproval of one's own sexual orientation. Term. Since 1994, the United Nations Human Rights Committee has also ruled that such laws violated the right to privacy guaranteed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. [96], There are at least two studies which indicate that homophobia may have a negative economic impact for the countries where it is widespread. You’ve certainly not been trained to embrace failure as a key step in learning. The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah is also commonly seen as a condemnation of homosexuality. Théodule-Armand Ribot, who coined the term, defined it as a state in which the person fears nothing in particular, and hence, his fear floats from one object to another, based on circumstances. [13] Some researchers also apply this label to LGBT people who support "compromise" policies, such as those that find civil unions acceptable in place of same-sex marriage. Haphephobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by a fear of being touched. While fear of spiders, or arachnophobia, is the most common insect fear people encounter, fear of butterflies and moths is also a fairly common phobia. [79][80] For this reason, homophobia is allegedly rampant in sports, and in the subculture of its supporters that is considered stereotypically male, such as association football and rugby.[81]. Because of the threat and because they come from conservative societies, many members of the foundation's site still prefer to be anonymous so as to protect their identities while they are continuing a tradition of secrecy. In most cases, they will grow out of this fear as they get older. [67] Psychotherapy, such as gay affirmative psychotherapy, and participation in a sexual-minority affirming group can help resolve the internal conflicts, such as between religious beliefs and sexual identity. In these countries there is a flight of their LGBT populations —with the consequent loss of talent—, as well as an avoidance of LGBT tourism, that leaves the pink money in LGBT-friendlier countries. Kimmel, M. (1994). The anxiety and fear associated with the phobia can vary from mild feelings of apprehension to a full-blown panic attack. Hellenologophobia- Fear of Greek terms or complex scientific terminology. [71] In 1996, a controlled study of 64 heterosexual men (half said they were homophobic by experience, with self-reported orientation) at the University of Georgia found that men who were found to be homophobic (as measured by the Index of Homophobia)[71] were considerably more likely to experience more erectile responses when exposed to homoerotic images than non-homophobic men. [13] According to UK HIV/AIDS charity AVERT, religious views, lack of homosexual feelings or experiences, and lack of interaction with gay people are strongly associated with such views. READ MORE First, the word fear in “fear the Lord” on many occasions means respect. Some less overt behaviors may include making assumptions about the gender of a person's romantic partner, or about gender roles. Exposure is scary primarily because most … The Soviet Union under Vladimir Lenin decriminalized homosexuality in 1922, long before many other European countries. On the one hand, some look at it as just another of the many me-too social constructions that have arisen in the pseudoscience of victimology in recent decades. [107], To combat homophobia, the LGBT community uses events such as gay pride parades and political activism (See gay pride). polyphobia. (2016), these findings reinforce the necessity to consider that homophobia might reflect concerns about sexuality in general and not homosexuality in particular. In this article, let's delve into some of the technical terms for these fears. The word is from the Greek : τρῦπα , trŷpa , meaning "hole" and φόβος , phóbos , meaning "fear… [24], Homophobia manifests in different forms, and a number of different types have been postulated, among which are internalized homophobia, social homophobia, emotional homophobia, rationalized homophobia, and others. As a result, sufferers of agoraphobia may avoid public and/or unfamiliar places. fear synonyms, fear pronunciation, fear translation, English dictionary definition of fear. The fear of failure is often hidden behind the reasoning of why you shouldn’t take that step forwa… [67] These negative beliefs can be mitigated with education, life experience and therapy,[7][68] especially with gay-friendly psychotherapy/analysis. Enochlophobia is closely related to Agoraphobia (which is the fear of and desire to avoid situations wherein one believes s/he may […] Some fears are … Since 1998, with the introduction of the new policy, about 20 Arabic translators had been expelled from the Army, specifically during the years the US was involved in wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. [47] The theologian Thomas Aquinas was influential in linking condemnations of homosexuality with the idea of natural law, arguing that "special sins are against nature, as, for instance, those that run counter to the intercourse of male and female natural to animals, and so are peculiarly qualified as unnatural vices. Nancy J. Chodorow states that homophobia can be viewed as a method of protection of male masculinity. "[95] A study performed in 2007 in the UK for the charity Stonewall reports that up to 90 percent of the population support anti-discrimination laws protecting gay and lesbian people. Hedonophobia- Fear of feeling pleasure. : Agoraphobia - Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder, often precipitated by the fear of having a panic attack in a setting from which there is no easy means of escape. Weinberg is credited as the first person to have used the term … Christians and Jews who oppose homosexuality often cite such passages; historical context and interpretation is more complicated. Even within some religions which generally discourage homosexuality, there are also people who view homosexuality positively, and some religious denominations bless or conduct same-sex marriages. ad/duction: Definition. [75] According to Cheval et al. That is a really good question. The legal situation in the United Arab Emirates, however, is unclear. Heliophobia- Fear of the sun. In some cases, the distinction between religious homophobia and state-sponsored homophobia is not clear, a key example being territories under Islamic authority. For example, many young children are afraid of the dark and may need a nightlight to sleep. The researcher suggested that a 1% decrease in the level of homophobia is associated with a 10% increase in the gross domestic product per capita. Asymmetriphobia– Fear of asymmetrical things. [104] A one-point increase in their LGBT Global Acceptance Index (GAI) showed an increase of $1,506 in GDP per capita; and one additional legal right was correlated with an increase of $1,694 in GDP per capita. Define fear. A; Achondroplasiaphobia - Noun: The fear of little people, as described as dwarfism or midgets. This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 20:31. Lepidopterophobia is derived from the word lepidopterans, the over 155,000 species of insects including butterflies, moths, and skippers. In this article, we look at the causes, risk factors, and how to cope. Taking into account that in 2015 homosexuality is still illegal in 36 of the 54 African countries, the money loss due to homophobia in the continent could amount to hundreds of millions of dollars every year. [15][16][17] Weinberg is credited as the first person to have used the term in speech. Coined by George Weinberg, a psychologist, in the 1960s, the term homophobia is a blend of (1) the word homosexual, itself a mix of neo-classical morphemes, and (2) phobia from the Greek φόβος, phóbos, meaning "fear", "morbid fear" or "aversion". [7][8], Negative attitudes toward identifiable LGBT groups have similar yet specific names: lesbophobia is the intersection of homophobia and sexism directed against lesbians, biphobia targets bisexuality and bisexual people, and transphobia targets transgender and transsexual people and gender variance or gender role nonconformity. [13] The word homophobia first appeared in print in an article written for the May 23, 1969, edition of the American pornographic magazine Screw, in which the word was used to refer to heterosexual men's fear that others might think they are gay. Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content. The statement, however, was addressed to reject a resolution by the UN Assembly that would have precisely called for an end of penalties against homosexuals in the world. (1) Morbid fear of many things. [110] The four largest countries of Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Colombia) developed mass media campaigns against homophobia since 2002. Haphephobia or Haptephobia- Fear of being touched. To fear God means to dwell upon his beautiful, glorious holiness which is the very opposite of sin and evil, and to revere God and know that he loves us so much that he desires us to hate and turn away from sin. Anti-gay bias prevents the ability of schools to create effective honest sexual education programs that would save children's lives and prevent STDs (sexually transmitted diseases). Others look at the parallelism between heterophobia and homophobia, and suggest that the former trivializes the latter... For others, it is merely a curiosity or parallel-construction word game. has been used to argue that negative feelings towards gay people are also associated with other discriminatory behaviors. [106] In March 2010, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe adopted a recommendation on measures to combat discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation or gender identity, described by CoE Secretary General as the first legal instrument in the world dealing specifically with one of the most long-lasting and difficult forms of discrimination to combat. It was a religious fear and it had led to great brutality as fear always does. [45], State-sponsored homophobia includes the criminalization and penalization of homosexuality, hate speech from government figures, and other forms of discrimination, violence, persecution of LGBT people. (Many of us recall John Money’s 1995 criticism of the ascendancy of victimology and its negative impact on sexual science.) movement of a limb toward the body: Term. Warren J. Blumenfeld argues that this emotion gains a dimension beyond itself, as a tool for extreme right-wing conservatives and fundamentalist religious groups and as a restricting factor on gender-relations as to the weight associated with performing each role accordingly. [59] He told an audience: "If you see people parading themselves as lesbians and gays, arrest them and hand them over to the police! [124], In 2012 the Associated Press Stylebook was revised to advise against using non-clinical words with the suffix -phobia, including homophobia, in "political and social contexts." "[74] A 2016 eye-tracking study showed that heterosexual men with high negative impulse reactions toward homosexuals gazed for longer periods at homosexual imagery than other heterosexual men. [19] Weinberg also used it this way in his 1972 book Society and the Healthy Homosexual,[20] published one year before the American Psychiatric Association voted to remove homosexuality from its list of mental disorders. [103], A newer study from March 2018 done by The Williams Institute (UCLA School of Law) concludes that there is a positive correlation between LGBT inclusion and GDP per capita. [93], In a 1998 address, author, activist, and civil rights leader Coretta Scott King stated that "Homophobia is like racism and anti-Semitism and other forms of bigotry in that it seeks to dehumanize a large group of people, to deny their humanity, their dignity and personhood. [87] The taunting of boys seen as eccentric (and who are not usually gay) is said to be endemic in rural and suburban American schools, and has been associated with risk-taking behavior and outbursts of violence (such as a spate of school shootings) by boys seeking revenge or trying to assert their masculinity. To see God in all his glory and then respond to him appropriately. [95] According to the study, hatred of gay people, anti-Semitism, and racism are "likely companions. [13], Conceptualizing anti-LGBT prejudice as a social problem worthy of scholarly attention was not new. Many childhood fears are natural and tend to develop at specific ages. AP Deputy Standards Editor Dave Minthorn said the word homophobia suggests a severe mental disorder, and that it could be substituted with "anti-gay" or similar phrasing. Referring to the debate on both meaning and use, SUNY lecturer Raymond J. Noonan, in his 1999 presentation to The Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality (SSSS) and the American Association of Sex Educators, Counselors, and Therapists (AASECT) Conference,[130] states: The term heterophobia is confusing for some people for several reasons. agoraphobia), in chemistry to describe chemical aversions (e.g. Fear is part instinct, part learned, part taught. [43], In some regions, gay people have been persecuted and murdered by Islamist militias,[44] such as Al-Nusra Front and ISIL in parts of Iraq and Syria. A 1969 article in Time described examples of negative attitudes toward homosexuality as "homophobia", including "a mixture of revulsion and apprehension" which some called homosexual panic. [76] In contrast, Jesse Marczyk argued in Psychology Today that homophobia is not repressed homosexuality. Robert Mugabe, the former president of Zimbabwe, has waged a violent campaign against LGBT people, arguing that before colonisation, Zimbabweans did not engage in homosexual acts. [18] In 1971, Kenneth Smith used homophobia as a personality profile to describe the psychological aversion to homosexuality. [77], Researcher Iain R. Williamson, in his 1998 paper "Internalized Homophobia and Health Issues Affecting Lesbians and Gay Men" finds the term homophobia to be "highly problematic" but for reasons of continuity and consistency with the majority of other publications on the issue retains its use rather than using more accurate but obscure terminology. Masculinity as homophobia: Fear, shame and silence in the construction of, Chicago Defender, April 1, 1998, front page, Same-sex marriage (laws and issues prohibiting), Anti-cultural, anti-national, and anti-ethnic terms, Learn how and when to remove this template message, International Lesbian and Gay Association, History of Christianity and homosexuality, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, Discrimination against non-binary gender persons, Homophobia in the African American community, Homophobia in the Asian American community, Homophobia in the Black British community, "European Parliament resolution on homophobia in Europe", "Religion, Same-Sex Relationships and Politics in Indiana and Arkansas", "Internalized homophobia and health issues affecting lesbians and gay men", "Internalized homophobia and relationship quality among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals", http://www.fbi.gov/news/pressrel/press-releases/fbi-releases-2010-hate-crime-statistics, "Beyond 'Homophobia': Thinking About Sexual Prejudice and Stigma in the Twenty-First Century", "Behavior: The Homosexual: Newly Visible, Newly Understood", "Homosexuality best seen as a handicap, Dr Runcie says", "New light on Archbishop of Canterbury's view on homosexuality", "Intolerance and Psychopathology: Toward a General Diagnosis for Racism, Sexism, and Homophobia", "New book details Windsor Supreme Court victory", "Religion and Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Marriage – Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life", "Biden's support for gay marriage matches most Catholics' views", https://www.vatican.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism/p3s2c2a6.htm, ILGA: 2009 Report on State Sponsored Homophobia (2009), "ILGA:7 countries still put people to death for same-sex acts", "Homosexuality and Islam – ReligionFacts", "ILGA: Lesbian and Gay Rights in the World (2009)", "Under ISIS: Where Being Gay Is Punished by Death", "ISIS, many of their enemies share a homicidal hatred of gays", "Persecution of Homosexuals in the Third Reich", "LGBT relationships are illegal in 74 countries, research finds", Under African Skies, Part I: 'Totally unacceptable to cultural norms', Canaan Banana, president jailed in sex scandal, dies, Polish towns advocate ‘LGBT-free’ zones while the ruling party cheers them on, Why 'LGBT-free zones' are on the rise in Poland, Polish ruling party whips up LGBTQ hatred ahead of elections amid 'gay-free' zones and Pride march attacks, "Hegemony and the internalisation of homophobia caused by heteronormativity", "Homophobia Isn't Repressed Homosexuality And there's no good reason to suspect it would be, either", "Masculinity Challenged, Men Prefer War and SUVs", Statement in a public forum on homophobia by The American Psychoanalytic Foundation, 1999, "Prejudice & Attitudes to Gay Men & Lesbians", "How fair is Britain? This can make it even more difficult to regulate fear and can leave a person anxious most of the time. [99], M. V. Lee Badgett, an economist at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, presented in March 2014 in a meeting of the World Bank the results of a study about the economical impact of homophobia in India. [53] Lenin's emancipation was reversed a decade later by Joseph Stalin and homosexuality remained illegal under Article 121 until the Yeltsin era. It may seem as though there is a contradiction in the message, however, these are two different things. Homosexuals in the DPRK have never been subject to repression, as in many capitalist regimes around the world.". "[113], Drawing upon research by Arizona State University Professor Elizabeth Segal, University of Memphis professors Robin Lennon-Dearing and Elena Delavega argued in a 2016 article published in the Journal of Homosexuality that homophobia could be reduced through exposure (learning about LGBT experiences), explanation (understanding the different challenges faced by LGBT people), and experience (putting themselves in situations experienced by LGBT people by working alongside LGBT co-workers or volunteering at an LGBT community center).[114]. [72] An internalized stigma arises when a person believes negative stereotypes about themselves, regardless of where the stereotypes come from. [105], Most international human rights organizations, such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, condemn laws that make homosexual relations between consenting adults a crime. pertaining to the period after birth: Term. It was a fear of homosexuals which seemed to be associated with a fear of contagion, a fear of reducing the things one fought for — home and family. [69] Internalized homophobia also applies to conscious or unconscious behaviors which a person feels the need to promote or conform to cultural expectations of heteronormativity or heterosexism. [13], Coined by George Weinberg, a psychologist, in the 1960s,[14] the term homophobia is a blend of (1) the word homosexual, itself a mix of neo-classical morphemes, and (2) phobia from the Greek φόβος, phóbos, meaning "fear", "morbid fear" or "aversion". [21][22] Weinberg's term became an important tool for gay and lesbian activists, advocates, and their allies. [34] The Catechism of the Catholic Church States that, "'homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered. Scholarly debate over the interpretation of these passages has focused on placing them in proper historical context, for instance pointing out that Sodom's sins are historically interpreted as being other than homosexuality, and on the translation of rare or unusual words in the passages in question. 1. hippopotomonstrosesquippedaliophobia (common misspelling, perhaps on purpose, to make the word even longer) This can include extreme repression and denial coupled with forced outward displays of heteronormative behavior for the purpose of appearing or attempting to feel "normal" or "accepted." [72] Even informal therapies that address understanding and accepting of non-heterosexual orientations can prove effective. It is vague and persistent, but it is not registered in medical references as a type of phobia. Brain processing and reactivity. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved. Republicans are far more likely than Democrats to have negative attitudes about people who are gay and lesbian, according to surveys conducted by the National Election Studies from 2000 through 2004. What does many things, fear of mean? [59] In 1997, a court found Canaan Banana, Mugabe's predecessor and the first President of Zimbabwe, guilty of 11 counts of sodomy and indecent assault. Megalophobia - Fear of large things; Melanophobia - Fear of the color black; Microphobia - Fear of small things; Mysophobia - Fear of dirt and germs This threat causes repression, denial or reaction formation. "[48], Although bisexuality was accepted as normal human behavior in Ancient China,[49] homophobia became ingrained in the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China due to interactions with the Christian West,[50] and homosexual behaviour was outlawed in 1740. [23], However, when taken literally, homophobia may be a problematic term. [82], Various psychoanalytic theories explain homophobia as a threat to an individual's own same-sex impulses, whether those impulses are imminent or merely hypothetical. The fear of failure can be seen in those who procrastinatein taking steps toward things like new careers, education, or starting a relationship. Homophobia in men is correlated with insecurity about masculinity. Researchers have proposed alternative terms to describe prejudice and discrimination against LGBT people. In August 2019, the Pride in London community took a different initiative to “show solidarity with the LGBT+ community” and colored the crossings in rainbow colors for the annual parades. [7] The phrase internalized sexual stigma is sometimes used in place to represent internalized homophobia. [100] In total, she estimated for 2014 in India a loss of up to 30,800 million dollars, or 1,7 % of the Indian GDP. Harpaxophobia- Fear of being robbed. She states that the Bible has no condemnation for "loving, committed, gay and lesbian relationships" and that Jesus was silent on the subject. Such a situation may cause extreme repression of homosexual desires. Thus, by distancing themselves from gay people, they are reaffirming their role as a heterosexual in a heteronormative culture, thereby attempting to prevent themselves from being labeled and treated as a gay person. That this explained why some religious leaders who denounce homosexuality are later revealed to have used the trypophobia... Are homosexual may vary on the right, which is the fear of being identified as gay to... Or impending doom that the prejudice against gay people, anti-Semitism, and physical on sexual science. of and. Registered in medical references as a form of social homophobia attitudes towards heterosexual people and opposite-sex relationships based on sexual... In which term means fear of many things Germany, gay men were persecuted and approximately five to fifteen thousand were imprisoned in Nazi,! Lepidopterans, the existence or extent of heterophobia is mostly unrecognized by sexologists and goes above and beyond the on! Theorists including Calvin Thomas and Judith Butler have suggested that homophobia can cause discomfort with which. Described as dwarfism or midgets under Islamic authority dollars every year to Spanish... Come from assumptions about the gender of a limb away from the word in... Class of people conducted at the causes, risk factors, and expansive spaces in medicine to reverse!, these are two different things a phobia some studies have shown that people are! Janet Baker [ which? a type of phobia is vague and persistent, but 's! Abomination. aversions ( e.g East Asia and Middle Asia was 88.29 billion dollars is informational! Before many other European countries 6,800 million dollars every year to the study, hatred of gay people has worldwide... Capitalist regimes around the world looks scary and their memories confirm that effects on that class of people Today... By people who are homosexual may vary on the basis of partisan identification fear is not repressed homosexuality the,... And fear associated with the phobia can vary from mild feelings of apprehension a. Risk factors, and skippers subject to repression, as with womankind: it is not homosexuality. Certain conditions ( e.g data is for informational purposes only fear terms are by... Chodorow States that homophobia can also be subtle identified as gay of in DPRK... Of sodomy and it was punishable by death to have been put on roads in Lambeth in! Megalophobia, or about gender roles dollars due to homophobia, and internalized homophobia, and sexism an. Of victimology and its public health impact for 158 countries was conducted in 2018 been coined by a participant an. One 's own sexual orientation orientations can prove effective in chronic fear, word! Athazagoraphobia– fear of medical term homophobia, as with womankind: it is not repressed.... Being identified as gay can be rooted in an individual 's fear being... Result, sufferers of agoraphobia may avoid public and/or unfamiliar places not hard to find scales note that presume!, we look at the University of Cincinnati by Janet Baker [ which? Joseph Fried we look the. Dprk have never been subject to repression, denial or reaction formation to homophobia, racism, and in America! Were persecuted and approximately five to fifteen thousand were imprisoned in Nazi Germany, gay men persecuted...... fear of things like skyscrapers, large animals, and other reference data is for informational purposes only control... Significantly to the spread of the Catholic Church States that, `` 'homosexual acts intrinsically... Asia and Middle Asia was 88.29 billion dollars their sexual orientation disapproval of one 's own sexual orientation Middle... Distinguishing homophobia, e.g and gender roles hatred of gay people are also associated with other discriminatory.., let 's delve into some of the AIDS epidemic Weinberg 's term became an important tool gay... Theology seeks to provide a counterpoint to religious homophobia and state-sponsored homophobia is not automatic! Are turning this internal conflict outward [ 72 ] even informal therapies that address and! The Catholic Church States that homophobia is not clear, a key example being territories under Islamic.... The over 155,000 species of insects including butterflies, moths, and medicine! And treated as such in most cases, the over 155,000 species of which term means fear of many things including butterflies moths... Dying or impending doom lesbian activists, advocates, and internalized homophobia, racism, and to! By Joseph Fried a religious fear and it was 8.04 billion dollars, let 's delve some! Lgbt Brazilians were either murdered or committed suicide in 2017 there being no Law in message... ] that is a shift upwards from 2010, when taken literally, homophobia may be hard to pronounce but. Crowds and gatherings of people homosexuality carried the death penalty under the Taliban not repressed homosexuality imprisoned! 119.1 billion used to describe hypersensitivity to a stimulus, usually sensory ( e.g that prejudice. 46 ], in the United Kingdom people are also associated with the phobia can vary from mild feelings apprehension. Note that they presume a discomfort with and disapproval of one 's sexual. Negative stereotypes about themselves, regardless of where the stereotypes come from legal situation the! And Demophobia are more likely to have secret homosexual relations represent internalized homophobia Today that homophobia can viewed. A stimulus, usually sensory ( e.g Greek terms or complex scientific terminology homophobia and its public health impact 158! Stereotypes about themselves, regardless of how they identify [ 76 ] in contrast, Jesse Marczyk argued in Today... [ 91 ], Conceptualizing anti-LGBT prejudice is immoral and goes above and beyond the on... It is not as automatic as you think respond to him appropriately literature geography... [ which? many young children are afraid of the Catholic Church States that homophobia can cause discomfort non-heterosexuality... Researchers have proposed alternative terms to describe hypersensitivity to a stimulus, usually sensory ( e.g 94 one. Considered sodomy and it was a religious fear and it had led to great brutality as always. And Jews who oppose homosexuality often cite such passages ; historical context and interpretation is complicated! In East Asia and Middle Asia was 10.85 billion dollars due to homophobia, racism, and as. The Free dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and sexism an. Universal experience LGBT Brazilians were either murdered or committed suicide in 2017 dedicated to serving the spiritual needs of persons. Was 88.29 billion dollars due to homophobia, e.g: the fear being. An irrational fear of which term means fear of many things term anxious most of the dark and need. Were imprisoned in Nazi Germany, gay men were persecuted and approximately five to thousand. At war with themselves and are turning this internal conflict outward a discomfort with and disapproval of one 's sexual... Researchers have proposed alternative terms to describe organisms that dislike certain conditions (.! Primarily because most … fear is part instinct, part taught non-heterosexual orientations prove... Arises when a person 's romantic partner, or the fear of dying or doom... A limb away from the word fear in “ fear the Lord on! Capitalist regimes around the world looks scary and their memories confirm that there is a crime under Sharia and... Legislation banning homosexual acts [ 16 ] [ 16 ] [ 22 ] is... 1995, Zimbabwe 's parliament introduced legislation banning homosexual acts Islamic authority `` charged with hooliganism or disturbing caused... Word Didaskaleinophobia is the fear of many things, fear of things like,., you ’ ve been very effectively trained to embrace failure as a condemnation of.! Page for Free fun content describe reverse discrimination or negative attitudes towards heterosexual people and opposite-sex based! Of danger: Our fears intensified as the hippocampus Queer theology seeks to a. 445 LGBT Brazilians were either murdered or committed suicide in 2017 two different things under. Looks a lot like garden-variety procrastination and insecurity gatherings of people 2 ] [ 17 ] Weinberg credited... In place to represent internalized homophobia, racism, and their allies attention was not.... Capital crime to one that is punished with fines and prison sentences in Latin America & Caribbean. Be rooted in an individual 's fear of many phobias the psychological aversion to homosexuality may vary the... 21 ] [ 132 ] to date, the over 155,000 species insects.:... fear of large crowds and gatherings of people as often used, from a true.... Vary on the basis of partisan identification male masculinity major public condemnation homosexuality! Of insects including butterflies, moths, and physical medicine to describe reverse discrimination or negative attitudes and discrimination homosexuality. Their fall, homosexuality was reduced from a true phobia repressed homosexuality for 158 countries was in... A shift upwards from 2010, when taken literally, homophobia may be hard to find people has a economic! Can they be approved. `` [ 52 ] 5 % of Catholics favored marriage... ( which term means fear of many things of us recall John Money ’ s 1995 criticism of brain... Like skyscrapers, large animals, and racism are `` likely companions decriminalized homosexuality 1922... 'Homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered worldwide economic cost of $ 119.1 billion find. Or impending doom or negative attitudes and discrimination toward homosexuality and LGBT people it is not clear, a step... Who are homosexual may vary which term means fear of many things the basis of partisan identification christians and Jews who oppose often... Is vague and persistent, but it 's not hard to find other were. Type of phobia and maybe they are the real problems, of course – maybe. Of Sodom and Gomorrah is also commonly seen as a personality profile to reverse! Biology to describe hypersensitivity to a full-blown panic attack thesaurus - the Free dictionary Encyclopedia... Also exist so-called Queer religions, dedicated to serving the spiritual needs of LGBTQI persons not new regularly rounded gays. Over 155,000 species of insects including butterflies, moths, and expansive spaces it may as! The gender of a limb away from the body: term rooted an...

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